Governance and financing of apprenticeship

Study commissioned by Cedefop to contribute to improving and consolidating the dual vocational training system

  • Funding body: CEDEFOP
  • Coordinator: Universitat de Bremen
  • Partners: 3S, CLASS, CEFI, Notus
  • Period: 2013-2015



The objective of the project was to analyse vocational training governance structures with the aim of identifying the necessary conditions for the development of dual vocational training. In order to do so it was necessary to develop and justify a normative model of governance structures and financing mechanisms that are considered ‘optimal’ or ‘adequate’. It is possible to classify the components to be developed by level of analysis:

– Macro-level: national strategic policies in areas of vocational training, national strategic policies in areas of vocational training, strategic financial priorities and funding models.

– Meso-level: the forms of coordination and cooperation of actors (public authorities, organisations of social actors and chambers of commerce and industry), monitoring and evaluation mechanisms, institutional training structures and institutional autonomy. This analytical level also includes the contractual conditions for apprentices.

The developed model takes into consideration the different types of vocational training and qualification schemes. The model has been applied to five countries: Italy, Spain, Latvia, Portugal and Sweden.


Cedefop (2016): Governance and financing of apprenticeships. Luxembourg: Publications Office. Cedefop research paper; No 53.


Photo Credit: Stanley Zimley, abstract mushroom

Back to Top